Its political, social and economic structures were extremely backward in comparison to other countries in Europe. Troops fire on demonstrating crowds. [55] The Provisional government included 9 Duma deputies and 6 from the Kadet party in ministerial positional, representing professional and business interests, the bourgeoisie. [20], On 9 January 1917 [O.S. Order No. After firing at mounted police the soldiers of the Fourth Company were disarmed by the Preobrazhensky Regiment. Thousands of workers flooded the streets of Petrograd (modern St. Petersburg) to show their dissatisfaction. There is also a written task at the end which requires them to consider the most important cause, and an extension task to consider how spontaneous the February Revolution was. The first major event of the Russian Revolution was the February Revolution, which was a chaotic affair, caused by the culmination of over a century of civil and military unrest between the common people and the Tsar and aristocratic landowners. Historians disagree on the main factors that contributed to this. Food shortages and military failures at the start of the twentieth century had caused strikes and riots that were often brutally suppressed. . The economic challenges faced due to fighting a total war also contributed. It had to share power with another body – the Petrograd Soviet of Worker's and Soldiers' Deputies. There were not enough laborers to collect the harvests and there were serious food shortages. [53], After the abdication of the throne by the Tsar, the Provisional Government declared itself the new form of authority. He faced many challenges related to the war: there were still very heavy military losses on the front; dissatisfied soldiers deserted in larger numbers than before; other political groups did their utmost to undermine him; there was a strong movement in favor of withdrawing Russia from the war, which was seen to be draining the country, and many who had initially supported it now wanted out; and there was a great shortage of food and supplies, which was very difficult to remedy in wartime conditions. That evening Golitsyn used a (signed,[35] but not yet dated) ukaze declaring that his Majesty had decided to interrupt the Duma until April, leaving it with no legal authority to act. For the 1848 revolution in France, see. 1.1 Inflation. These conditions caused much agitation among the small working and professional classes. The conflict between the "diarchy" became obvious, and ultimately the regime and the dual power formed between the Petrograd Soviet and the Provisional Government, instigated by the February Revolution, was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution.[61]. Revisionist historians present a timeline where revolution in February was far less inevitable than the liberals and soviets would make it seem. This left the reins of power to his wife, the German Tsarina Alexandra, who was unpopular and accused of being a spy, and under the thumb of her confidant - Grigori Rasputin, himself so unpopular that he was assassinated by members of the nobility in December 1916. In 1915, the Tsar attempted to boost moral by taking personal command of the army. . He believed that the most effective way to overthrow the government was to be a minority party and to give no support to the Provisional Government. October revolution. Delay, he wrote, would be "tantamount to death". In France the revolutionary events ended the July Monarchy (1830–1848) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. 1.1.1.1 Price of flour had grown by 500%. It was largely caused by Russia’s involvement in World War I , which placed enormous strain on Russia’s economy, leading to significant shortages, while highlighting the gross incompetence of the tsarist regime. The Soviet also gained support from Social Revolutionists and Mensheviks when the two groups realized that they did not want to support the Provisional Government. [54] The Provisional Government had the formal authority in Russia but the Soviet Executive Committee and the soviets had the support of the majority of the population. The main events of the revolution took place in and near Petrograd (present-day Saint Petersburg), the then-capital of Russia, where long-standing discontent with the monarchy erupted into mass protests against food rationing on 23 February Old Style (8 March New Style). A crowd gathers outside the Duma in Petrograd, February 1917. Causes of the 1917 February Revolution. At the same time, socialists also formed the Petrograd Soviet. This page was last edited on 17 December 2020, at 10:23. Unrest continues; Mensheviks meet and set up a “Workers’ Soviet” Nicholas II orders military to stop riots; February 26. The 1848 Revolution in the History of France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. Royal emblems torn from shop fronts an hour after the Tsar's abdication lie on the ice which covers the Fontanka Canal, Petrograd, 13 March 1917. Eventually nearly all industry in Petrograd was shut down. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, Social Conflict and Control, Protest and Repression (Russian Empire), Governments, Parliaments and Parties (Russian Empire), Labour Movements, Trade Unions and Strikes (Russian Empire), Лютнева революція. [52], Dual Power was not prevalent outside of the capital and political systems varied from province to province. Pressure from the Allies to continue the war against Germany put the government under increasing strain. Since the Provisional Government did not have the support of the majority and, in an effort to keep their claim to democratic mandate, they welcomed socialist parties to join in order to gain more support and Dvoyevlastiye (dual power) was established. The February Revolution: On February 23 rd the revolution begins as strikes and protests in Petrograd erupt into a mass movement involving hundreds of thousands of workers; within 5 days the hated and seemingly omnipotent Tsarist Monarchy is overthrown. If the answer is not available please wait for a while and a … The causes can be summarized as the ongoing cruel treatment of peasants by the bourgeoisie, poor working conditions of industrial workers and the spreading of western democratic ideas by political activists, leading to a growing political and social awareness in the lower classes. February was a 'revolution from below'. The February Revolution was a largely spontaneous uprising that brought about the abdication of Nicholas II and the end of tsarism in Russia. The striking workers and the soldiers formed the Petrograd Soviet and The Tsar was forced to abdicate. Immediately following the revolution a new Provisional Government was formed. Over 65 million men volunteered or were conscripted to fight in mass citizen armies and an estimated 16 million soldiers and civilians were left dead and countless others physically and psychologically wounded. But troops in the city refused. As historian Richard Pipes writes, "the incompatibility of capitalism and autocracy struck all who gave thought to the matter".[9]. The Government is paralyzed. At the same time that the Provisional Government was put into place, the Soviet Executive Committee was also forming. While the Soviet represented the proletariat, the provisional government represented the bourgeoisie. He had also left his wife, the German-born Tsarina Alexandra, in charge at home. He immediately began to undermine the provisional government, issuing his April Theses the next month. The government called in troops and suspended the Duma. [53] The soviet quickly became the representative responsible for fighting for workers and soldiers hopes for "bread, peace and land". Its position was also weakened because of 'Dual Power'. Firstly, it associated the monarchy with the unpopular war; secondly, Nicholas proved to be a poor leader of men on the front, often irritating his own commanders with his interference;[16] and thirdly, being at the front made him unavailable to govern. [58], Kerensky declared freedom of speech, ended capital punishment, released thousands of political prisoners and tried to maintain Russian involvement in World War I. These events further divided Nicholas II from his people. In February 1917, workers from 50 factories on the right bank of Neva called a strike. 3 March], a provisional government was announced. (8 March N.S. Historians debated from early on whether this was a planned Bolshevik attempt to seize power or a strategy to plan a future coup. The February 1917 revolution produced a democratic, republican government, with a, defacto, seperation of powers between the Duma (Russia's elected parliament created after the revolution of 1905) and the Soviets, workers councils also formed during 1905 and later, which until 1917 had no real political power. Russian Revolution, also called Russian Revolution of 1917, two revolutions in 1917, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in power. When these two powers existed at the same time, "dual power" was created. [26] [17], On the home front, a famine loomed and commodities became scarce, due to the overstretched railroad network. This was a self-appointed 'cabinet', made up of members of the Duma and led by the politician and landowner, Prince George Lvov. [48] The soviets spent their time pushing for a constituent assembly rather than swaying the public to believe they were a more morally sound means of governing. The New York Times , for instance, recently wrote that “the February Revolution was largely spontaneous and unorganized . М. В. Ломоносова. [38] The Duma refused to head the revolutionary movement. The February Revolution was the first of two revolutions that took place in Russia in 1917. Right-wingers felt betrayed, and the left wing was resurgent. [56] Lenin also tried to take control of the Bolshevik movement and attempted to win proletariat support by the use of slogans such as "Peace, bread and land", "End the war without annexations or indemnities", "All power to the Soviet" and "All land to those who work it". Georgy Lvov proposed to Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia (1856–1929) that he[who?] take control of the country. On 16 January  [O.S. Dissatisfaction of proletarians was compounded by food shortages and military failures. [52] As the left moved further left in Russia over the course of 1917, the Kadets became the main conservative party. Three days later Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, ending Romanov dynastic rule and the Russian Empire. The revolutions spread across Europe; they erupted in Austria and Germany, beginning with the large demonstrations on March 13, 1848, in Vienna. Despite introducing a programme of liberal reforms over the following months, the Provisional Government decided not to take Russia out of the First World War. These theses were in favor of "Revolutionary defeatism", which argues that the real enemy is those who send the proletariat into war, as opposed to the "imperialist war" (whose "link to Capital" must be demonstrated to the masses) and the "social-chauvinists" (such as Georgi Plekhanov, the grandfather of Russian socialism), who supported the war. February Revolution, 1848, French revolution that overthrew the monarchy of Louis Philippe and established the Second Republic. Timeline of the February revolution including: Putilov strikes International Women’s Day strike Dual authority - including the major weaknesses of dual authority Tsar abdication Reasons for the February revolution and early achievements of the Provisional Government. Despite this, the provisional government strove to implement further left leaning policies with the repeal of the death penalty, amnesty for political prisoners and freedom of the press. The Duma President Mikhail Rodzianko, Grand Duchess Marie Pavlovna and British ambassador Buchanan joined calls for Alexandra to be removed from influence, but Nicholas still refused to take their advice. The war was going badly for Russia with a string of defeats. February Revolution (24-27, 1917) The revolution that overthrew the tsarist government in Russia, and replaced it with a provisional government of Duma officials.. World War I had lasted 31 long months by February, 1917. The Tsar ignored the advice. In France the revolution of 1848 became known as the February Revolution. By 1917, the majority Petersburgers had lost faith in the Tsarist regime. Trade unions were banned and 'troublemakers' were sent into exile. All of these were highlighted by the soldiers, urban workers, and peasants who claimed that little had been gained by the February Revolution. Alexander Kerensky took the opportunity to attack the Tsarist regime. The February Revolution, known in Soviet history as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution and sometimes as the March Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917. the Tsar left for the front.[29]. "[7] In short, the Tsar no longer had the support of the military, the nobility or the Duma (collectively the élites), or the Russian people. Soldiers of this regiment brought the Litovsky, Preobrazhensky, and Moskovsky Regiments out on the street to join the rebellion,[43][40] resulting in the hunting down of police and the gathering of 40,000 rifles which were dispersed among the workers. Жіночий бунт, який знищив Російську імперію (February Revolution. [24] According to Rodzianko the Empress "exerts an adverse influence on all appointments, including even those in the army." They were joined the next day, International Women's Day, by female protesters marching against food rationing. This move had disastrous results. The president of the Imperial Duma Rodzianko asked the chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikolai Golitsyn to resign; the minister of Foreign Affairs Nikolai Pokrovsky proposed the resignation of the whole government. [6] Strikes continued on the following days. General dissatisfaction resulted partly from the king's increasingly reactionary policy, carried out after 1840 by François Guizot , and partly from the poor conditions of the working class, which were intensified by the economic crisis of 1846–47. The striking workers and the soldiers formed the Petrograd Soviet and The Tsar was forced to abdicate. They failed to address one of the main causes for the February Revolution and this would be one of the factors that led to a second revolution, in October 1917. There are many long-term and short-term causes which led to the overthrow of monarchy in Russia. The Petrograd Soviet and the Provisional Government shared dual power over Russia. Strikes and protests in Russia saw no reforms from the government. [5] Russia had been suffering from a number of economic and social problems, which compounded after the start of World War I in 1914. with no clear leaders” — October, in contrast, was a “coup.” A series of public protests begin in Petrograd, which last for eight days and eventually result in abolition of the monarchy in Russia. A number of factors contributed to the February Revolution, both short and long term. [47] The 300 year-old Romanov dynasty ended with the Grand Duke's decision on 3 March O.S (16 March N.S). The government called in troops and suspended the Duma. Leaders of the Soviet placed the blame of the July Days on the Bolsheviks, as did the Provisional Government who issued arrest warrants for prominent Bolsheviks. [10] The Tsarina proved an ineffective ruler in a time of war, announcing a rapid succession of different Prime Ministers and angering the Duma. [21], "In the seventeen months of the 'Tsarina's rule', from September 1915 to February 1917, Russia had four Prime Ministers, five Ministers of the Interior, three Foreign Ministers, three War Ministers, three Ministers of Transport and four Ministers of Agriculture. The February revolution saw the fall of the monarchy. The first part was the February Revolution. The soviets held the real power to effect change. At the time of the revolution Russia was an autocracy, with Tsar Nicholas II holding absolute power over his people. Europe in 1914 was an armed camp; its politics dominated by two rival alliances. The 1905 Revolution had led to some reforms, including the establishment of a State Duma (legislative assembly), but there was still no real democracy in Russia. The revolution was provoked by Russian military failures during the First World War,[10] as well as public dissatisfaction with the way the country was run on the home front. Reasons for the February Revolution, 1917 Tsar Nicholas II was a poor leader. However its infrastructure struggled to cope with the demands of war. Economic problems grew, made worse by Russia's disastrous involvement in World War One. Widespread strikes, riots and the famous mutiny on the Battleship Potemkin ensued. Mutinies sprang up more often (most due to simple war-weariness), morale was at its lowest, and the newly called up officers and commanders were at times very incompetent. The Provisional Government shared Kadet views. [28] The protesting mob called for the war to end and for the Russian monarchy to be overthrown. The revolution appeared to break out without any real leadership or formal planning. Out of these three approaches, all of them have received modern criticism. police agents reported that army officers had, for the first time, mingled with the crowds demonstrating against the war and the government on Nevsky Prospekt. On 23 February O.S. He did so on behalf of himself and his son, Tsarevich Alexei. The inevitable result was revolution. On 14 February O.S. After the Napoleonic Era, the Germanic states had emerged with a new consciousness and governmental structure. February Revolution begins, leading to the end of czarist rule in Russia In Russia, the February Revolution (known as such because of Russia’s … [60] Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries confronted the army and convinced them to stand down. 29 December 1916] a hesitating Nikolai Golitsyn became the successor of Trepov. By nightfall, General Khabalov and his forces faced a capital controlled by revolutionaries. At the time of the revolution Russia was an autocracy, with Tsar Nicholas II holding absolute power over his people. On 11 January 1917 [O.S. The Revolution began on February 23 (March 8 NS) when working-class women, observing the socialist holiday of International Women’s Day, took to the streets of the capital to protest against food shortages and high bread prices. [15], In an attempt to boost morale and repair his reputation as a leader, Tsar Nicholas announced in the summer of 1915 that he would take personal command of the army, in defiance of almost universal advice to the contrary. The February Revolution in 1917 marked the end of the Tsardom and long-ruling Romanov dynasty. The February Revolution was the first of two revolutions that took place in Russia in 1917. [40] Army officers retreated into hiding and many took refuge in the Admiralty building, but moved that night to the Winter Palace.[41]. On 22 February 1917, metal workers in Petrograd went on strike. 1.2.2 Army rations reduced. 1: The orders of the Military Commission of the State Duma [part of the organisation which became the Provisional Government] shall be executed only in such cases as do not conflict with the orders and resolution of the Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies. [45], On 28 February, Rodzianko invited the Grand Duke Paul Alexandrovich and Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich to put their signatures to the drafting of the Manifesto, in which Emperor Nicholas II was recommended to introduce the constitutional system in Russia. Female mutiny that destroyed the Russian Empire), Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia, Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=February_Revolution&oldid=994751382, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2012, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Role of revolutionary groups and revolutionary committees. Revisionists track the mounting pressure on the Tsarist regime back further than the other two groups to unsatisfied peasants in the countryside upset over matters of land-ownership. Attempts were made by high-ranking military leaders to persuade the Tsar to resign power to the Duma in an effort to collapse war efforts and establish far-left power. The remaining loyal units switched allegiance the next day. Voices How propaganda from the Russian Revolution brought about today’s ‘troll factories’ Under the ‘iPad president’ Medvedev, the internet brought a new dimension to Russian propaganda. On 26 February O.S (11 March N.S) Mikhail Rodzianko, Chairman of the Duma, had sent the Tsar a report of the chaos in a telegram (exact wordings and translations differ, but each retains a similar sense[17]): The situation is serious. On 14 January O.S. Russia's industry depended almost entirely on foreign imports. [30] By 25 February O.S (10 March N.S), nearly all industrial enterprises in Petrograd were shut down by the uprising. Meanwhile, refugees from German-occupied Russia came in their millions. Kerensky was expected to deliver on his promises of jobs, land, and food almost instantaneously, and failed to do so. 27 December 1916] the Emperor dismissed his Prime Minister, Alexander Trepov. The February Revolution (Russian: Февральская Революция, Fevralskaya Revolyuziya) of 1917 was a revolution that ended the monarchy in the Russian Empire. They mutinied and joined the protesters. ), Putilov protesters were joined in the uprising by those celebrating International Woman's Day and protesting against the government's implemented food rationing. The October Revolution inspired a revolutionary wave across the world, including the Hungarian revolution, the German revolution of 1918-1919, and the Chinese revolution of 1925-27. The ideas from the French Revolution and the Enlightenment had crossed over due to the French armies. [48] On 8 March O.S (22 March N.S) the former Tsar, addressed with contempt by the sentries as "Nicholas Romanov", was reunited with his family at the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoye Selo. [57] Lenin fled to Finland and other members of the Bolshevik party were arrested. This was the beginning of the Russian Revolution. Economic problems grew, made worse by Russia's disastrous involvement in World War One. Mass mutiny begins in local army regimentsFirefights break out between troops and police ; February 27 The new government had no constitutional authority and was seen to still overwhelmingly represent the interests of the privileged and wealthy. At the end of January/beginning of February major negotiations took place between the Allied powers in Petrograd; unofficially they sought to clarify the internal situation in Russia. Russian Republic • October Revolution • Civil War(Red Army • White Guard • separatists • others). The Petrograd Soviet and the Provisio… Though industry did not collapse, it was considerably strained and when inflation soared, wages could not keep up. These three different approaches exist separately from one another because of their respective beliefs of what ultimately caused the collapse of a Tsarist government in February. [5] Historian Edward Acton argues that "by stubbornly refusing to reach any modus vivendi with the Progressive Bloc of the Duma... Nicholas undermined the loyalty of even those closest to the throne [and] opened an unbridgeable breach between himself and the public opinion. [52], Initially, Lenin and his ideas did not have widespread support, even among Bolsheviks. [50], The February Revolution immediately caused widespread excitement in Petrograd. Russian soldiers were being killed in mass, and … [48] However, the Soviet asserted de facto supremacy as early as 1 March O.S (14 March N.S) (before the creation of the Provisional Government), by issuing Order No. On 22 February O.S. Too much emphasis had been placed on spontaneity. In the spring of 1917, 700 soviets were established across Russia, equalling about a third of the population, representing the proletariat and their interests. When Germany and its Turkish allies blockaded Russia's Eastern ports, its railway, electricity and supply systems broke down. The crowd was so uncontrollable that the Soviet leadership sent the Socialist Revolutionary Victor Chernov, a widely liked politician, to the streets to calm the crowd. [25] Resource summary. Although the details remain sketchy, Kerensky appeared to become frightened by the possibility of a coup and the order was countermanded. Tsarist regime internal strife the front. 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